Disorders related to traumatic events or stressors include those disorders in which exposure to a traumatic event or stressful is a diagnostic criterion.

The psychological distress following exposure to a traumatic event is very variablein some cases, people show symptoms related to anxiety and fear, in other cases they show symptoms anedonici and dysphoric (lack of pleasure in making things and lowering of mood), symptoms of anger and aggression, or symptoms dissociative.

Based on the expression of the suffering individual clinical DSM-5 (Manual of diagnostic and statistical of mental disorders – 5th and most recent edition) provides for different types of disorders:

  • the disorder, reactive attachment,
  • the disorder, social commitment, uninhibited,
  • the disorder, acute stress,
  • the disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder
  • disorder, and adaptation.

As you experience the disorders related to traumatic events?

Disorder reactive of the attachment

The disorder responsive to attachment is a disorder that affects the children. This disorder is characterized a the relationship of attachment, absent or severely underdeveloped between the child and the parent figure. The behavior is constantly inhibited or emotionally withdrawn and when these children are distressed, not looking for the parent to get the solace, nourishment and protection. Is impaired the ability of emotional regulation, show emotional reactions unlikely to be explained, and when they show a negative emotionality are insensitive to the efforts of a caregiver to comfort them. Show a few if not void the emotional events positive in the interaction with the figures of reference, and often it is observed excessive irritability, sadness and fear. 

Often these children have experienced episodes of severe neglect in primary care in the course of the first month of life. For this reason, the disorder is inserted between the disorders related to trauma and stress. The prevalence of the disorder reactive attachment is unknown, but it is observed quite rarely in clinical settings, and especially in children who have been exposed to a serious neglect before being fostered or bred within institutions. Often associated with delays in cognitive and language.

Disorder social commitment uninhibited

The disorder, social commitment, uninhibited regards children and is characterized by behaviors overly familiar with strangers. Children suffering from this disorder and adopt the behaviors of excessive confidence, inappropriate, culturally, with adults not known and they show no reluctance to move away with them, leaving the parents. To be able to do a diagnosis of the disorder by a social commitment uninhibited is necessary that the child has developed the ability to develop any attachment selective, for this you can do a diagnosis first of the ninth month of age. Often these children have experienced episodes of severe neglect in primary care, and this may be associated with delays in development. The prevalence of the disorder is unknown and is observed infrequently in clinical settings, even in high-risk children, i.e. those that were gradually neglected and subsequently fostered or bred within institutions (about 20% of these).
Disturbi correlati a traumi - Centro Tice
Disturbi correlati a traumi - Centro Tice

Disorder post-traumatic stress disorder

The post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder primary and most well-known disorders related to trauma and stress. It is characterized by the presence of characteristic symptoms, following the exposure of the subject to one or more traumatic events (direct experience or assisted death or threat of death, serious injury, or sexual violence).

The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are varied, and their presentation can differ greatly from individual to individual. In some people, in fact, are the predominant emotional symptoms linked to the fear, in others, symptoms appear as anedonia, dysphoria and negative thoughts. In some cases it is possible to observe symptoms dissociative, while in others we can find a combination of all of these symptoms. The traumatic event can be relived in various ways, commonly, the individual has memories recurrent, involuntary and intrusive. Such memories include components that are behavioral, sensory, emotional, and physiological. A common symptom are dreams with unpleasant that repeat the same event or that are connected to it. For the children small re-enactment of the event may appear during the game. This often results in intense psychological distress or physiological reactivity when the individual is exposed to triggering events that resemble or symbolize the traumatic event. People with this disorder can become easily irascible and may react in an aggressive way, with little or no provocation. They can also behave in a reckless or self-destructive, such as dangerous driving or excessive use of alcohol or drugs, or a behavior self-injurious or suicidar I. Concentration difficulties are frequently reported, as well as difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining sleep.

PTSD can occur at any age, starting from the first year of life and the symptoms occur typically in the first three months after the trauma, although there may be a delay of months or even years before have met the criteria for a diagnosis.

Disorder acute stress

The symptoms of this disorder are similar to those of post traumatic stress disorder. The difference between disorder and acute stress and post-traumatic stress disorder is relative to the time of duration of the disorder, in the acute disorder, in fact, the symptoms occur within 3 days from the traumatic event and last for a maximum of one month. Although the disorder, acute stress can progress to the post traumatic stress disorder after a month, it can also be a transient response to the stress that resolves within a month of exposure to trauma. Approximately half of individuals who develop, if appropriate, a post-traumatic disorder initially has the disorder, acute stress.

Adjustment disorders

The noise in the adaptation is characterized by emotional or behavioural symptoms in response to an identifiable stressful event. The stressful event can be single, for example the end of a romantic relationship), or repeated or continuous (marked difficulties or the economic crisis of the marriage). Stressful events may relate to the individual, a family or an entire community and in some cases can be accompanied with specific evolutionary stages (for example, go to school, go home, go back to live with their parents, get married, become parents, retire).

In the case of deaths the noise in the adaptation may be diagnosed when the emotional reactions and behaviour are considered excessive and disproportionate to the intensity, quality, and persistence.

Disturbi correlati a traumi - Centro Tice

How we treat the disorders related to trauma to the Center Tice?

There are different strategies that can be used to deal with a disorder related to trauma. Over the years they have been validated numerous intervention strategies that have shown good results. The first aspect to consider if you acknowledge you have had a traumatic event that is influencing your life is to ask for help. Often, in fact, that people are ashamed of their symptoms, or try to “do for themselves” and to face a trauma in solitude. This typically does not help, even tends to worsen the condition that slowly can become chronic.

The reduction of the symptoms of anxiety and depression is the first objective of treatment. In this sense, the drug therapy may be a valuable help and for this, Tice collaborated with many doctors, psychiatrists, to ensure continuity and monitoring of the intervention in a coordinated and synergistic.

However, drug therapy does not intervene on the characteristics of personality on which it is necessary to act with psychotherapy.

At TICE propose interventions, and some psychotherapeutic drugs, individual , online or in vivo, based on the types of intervention that have obtained more evidence of efficacy in the literature in the reduction and healing of post traumatic stress disorder.

The Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT) centered on the trauma helps patients to identify and change the patterns distorted thinking about themselves, the traumatic event and the world, teaching, moreover, to manage the anxiety and negative emotions, with the aim of reducing the persistent symptoms of hyper-arousal that are the survivors. The protocols of CBT focused on trauma, and emphasize in particular the measures of exposure.

Also, one of the strategies of choice for the treatment of trauma is the EMDR, which stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, a particular treatment technique that facilitates the processing of the trauma patients, using a stimulation of bilateral sensory (eye, tactile, and auditory). The EMDR activates the system, cerebral deputy to the processing of the information relating to the intense traumatic experience and the brain, up to that moment, I was not only able to process and neutralize it. Thoughts, emotions, and feelings are made aware, so that they can be integrated with the rest of the information available to the brain.


Mindfulness is a meditative practice that consists in the pay attention to the present moment with an attitude that is friendly and non-judgmentalby helping to mull less on the past and worry less about the future. Programs, cognitive-behavioral, integrating the mindfulness approach (MBCT), help patients better tolerate the painful emotions and to take away from one's own thoughts negativthe, and are especially useful in the relapse prevention. To TICE, we propose individual paths or in a group to raise awareness through meditation.

When to undergo the trauma of the whole family, or when the adoptive parents or caregivers of children with disorders related to trauma even when you have a child who seems to struggle to adapt to a stressful situation, it is critical to enter, and the child or adolescent in a pathway of help.

The emotional reactions of the family to trauma or stressful event play a crucial role in mitigating or exacerbate the reactions of the child. For this it is important to understand how to relate to him/her, how to talk about the event and the emotions, consequential, how to react to his emotional expressions. Professionals TICE support the entire household in paths of awareness and change.

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