When it comes to sleep disorders, it refers to a broad category of problems that share a dissatisfaction regarding the quality, duration, the timing of sleep. Those who suffer from a sleep disorder and experience profound stress and impairment of daily activities.
Sleep disorders are often accompanied by depression, anxiety, and changes in cognitive that arise must be taken into account in the planning and management of the treatment. In addition, it has been shown that sleep alterations persistent are risk factors for the later development of mental illness and for substance use disorders.
What are sleep disorders?
Between all sleep disorders, insomnia is certainly the most popular, as it is estimated to be experienced occasionally by more than half of the population, and grieve in a severe form of at least one Italian out of 10. However, there are different types of sleep disorders:
- disorder insomnia
- disorder, hyper-somnolence
- sleep disorders related to breathing
- disorders, circadian rhythm sleep-wake
- disorders of arousal and sleep non-R. E. M.
- nightmare disorder
- behavioral disturbance of the sleep-R. E. M.
- restless legs syndrome
- sleep disorder induced by substances/drugs
Sleep disorders in children
Children in most cases, sleep at least 5 hours per night in the first years of life, but some may have the night awakenings, more or less frequent.
The sleep problems occur intermittently and transient in nature and frequently treatment is not required.
A child who has nightmares can wake up and remember vividly all the details of the dream. The nightmares occur more often in times of stress: if they are asked to keep a diary to try to identify the cause.
If the baby cries, he is scared, sweat, breathes, and has a rapid heart rhythm, it does not react to the attempts of reassurance, you can talk, but not be able to answer the questions. Children should not be woken, because they would be further terrified. Usually the child he keeps sleeping again at after a few minutes. Differently from what happens in the nightmares, the child is not able to recall these episodes.
How is it manifested insomnia?
The essential feature of the disorder, insomnia is the dissatisfaction with the the quality and quantity of sleep, which results in a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. The amount of sleep required each of us to feel relaxed is absolutely subjective, and varies from person to person. In fact, there are those called “short dorms” that they need a few hours of sleep to feel refreshed (5 hours or less) and “long dorms” that they need a sleep of long duration (at least 10 hours) to feel refreshed and more efficient throughout the day.
Insomnia may have different manifestations: it can occur as a disturbance of sleep onset and continuity of sleep, or a sleep is not restorative.
Disorders related to sleep, moreover, is accompanied by a significant distress or impairment in social functioning, occupational or other important areas of life. The sleep disorder can occur in the course of another mental disorder or medical condition, or may occur independently. It is a disorder very popular, which affects about 30% of the population (and the 50% of people over 50). Suffer from insomnia, particularly women and the elderly.
How we treat the sleep disorders Center Tice?
The differential diagnosis of disorders related to sleep, necessitating an approach multidimensional, which takes into account the medical conditions, and neurological co-existing. For this reason, the psychologists TICE communicate and collaborate with the doctors of the territory in order to reach a complete diagnosis and treatment for multi-dimensional.
At TICE propose interventions Cognitive-Behavioral therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I)online or in vivo, which is particularly indicated for the treatment of chronic insomnia. The treatment protocols of cognitive behavioral therapy described in the literature (Perlis et al., 2012, 2015), they shall, after an initial assessment of the characteristics of the disorder, the integrated use of several techniques (such as interventions psicoeducativi cognitive and behavioral).
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The Relaxation Training it is indicated in patients who characterize their insomnia as “inability to relax” and who complain of high levels of arousal, cognitive and somatic. Patients are instructed to perform regularly (twice a day) of the relaxation exercises (diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation) that reduce the levels of activation of somatic and cognitive) that interfere with sleep.
Mindfulness is a meditative practice that consists in the pay attention to the present moment with an attitude that is friendly and non-judgmentalby helping to mull less on the past and worry less about the future. Programs, cognitive-behavioral, integrating the mindfulness approach (MBCT), help patients better tolerate the painful emotions and to take away from one's own thoughts negativthe, and are especially useful in the relapse prevention. To TICE, we propose individual paths or in a group to raise awareness through meditation.
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